Written by Gabriela Segura, MD
Tuesday, 4 January 2011 11:13

Magnesium, just like magnetite and manganese, owes its name to the greek word Magnesia, a place name derived from the tribal people known as Magnetes. Physicians and therapists have paid scant attention to this crucial element which is one of the most important minerals for all living organisms. Magnesium has a relaxing, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect on our organism. It is critical for metabolic processes, cell growth and reproduction and is involved in hundreds of enzyme processes affecting every aspect of life. It is not only essential for maintaining good health, but also for detoxification and the treatment of numerous diseases.

Unfortunately, magnesium is one of the most depleted minerals in our soil. In fact, a U.S. Senate document from 1936 stated that fruits and vegetables being raised on millions of acres of land no longer contained enough of certain minerals, therefore starving the population of their nutritive effects no matter how much they ate. While some foods are enriched with calcium and vitamins, magnesium is usually ignored. Reseachers actually found that the recommended daily allowance for magnesium is inadequate to prevent magnesium deficiency. In addition, drugs such as painkillers, antibiotics, diuretics, anti-depressants and others further deplete magnesium and other vital nutrients in our bodies, worsening the symptoms for which they were prescribed in the first place. Stressful situations such as surgery, injuries, malnutrition, diseases and psychological stress also increase our daily requirements of this important mineral. This translates into a widespread magnesium deficiency problem among the population which then causes or contributes to numerous conditions including degenerative chronic diseases:

Anxiety and panic attacks. Magnesium helps keep adrenal stress hormones under control.
Asthma. Both histamine production and bronchial spasms increase with magnesium deficiency.
Blood clots. Magnesium plays an important role in preventing blood clots and keeping the blood thin without any side effects.
Bowel disease. Magnesium deficiency slows down the bowel, causing constipation, which could lead to colitis, toxicity and malabsorption of nutrients.
Cystitis. Bladder spasms are worsened by magnesium deficiency.
Depression. Serotonin, which elevates mood, is dependent on magnesium. A magnesium-deficient brain is also more susceptible to allergens, foreign substances that in rare instances can cause symptoms similar to mental illness.
Detoxification. Magnesium is crucial for the removal from the body of toxic substances and heavy metals such as aluminum and lead.
Diabetes. Magnesium enhances insulin secretion, facilitating sugar metabolism. Without magnesium, insulin is not able to transfer glucose into cells. Glucose and insulin build up in the blood, causing various types of tissue damage.
Fatigue. Magnesium-deficient patients commonly experience fatigue because dozens of enzyme systems are underfunctioning. An early symptom of magnesium deficiency is fatigue.
Heart disease. Magnesium deficiency is common in people with heart disease. Magnesium is administered in hospitals for acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmia. Like any other muscle, the heart requires magnesium. Magnesium is also used to treat angina, or chest pain.
Hypertension. With insufficient magnesium, blood vessels may go into spasm and cholesterol may rise, both of which lead to blood pressure problems.
Hypoglycemia. Magnesium keeps insulin under control; without magnesium, episodes of low blood sugar can result.
Insomnia. Sleep-regulating melatonin production is disturbed with insufficient magnesium.
Kidney disease. Magnesium deficiency contributes to atherosclerotic kidney failure. Magnesium deficiency creates abnormal lipid levels and worsening blood sugar control in kidney transplant patients.
Migraine. Serotonin balance is magnesium-dependent. Deficiency of serotonin can result in migraine headaches and depression.
Musculoskeletal conditions. Fibrositis, fibromyalgia, muscle spasms, eye twitches, cramps and chronic neck and back pain may be caused by magnesium deficiency and can be relieved with magnesium supplements.
Nerve problems. Magnesium alleviates peripheral nerve disturbances throughout the body such as headaches, muscle contractions, gastrointestinal spasms and calf, foot, and toe cramps. It is also used in treating the central nervous system of vertigo and confusion.
Obstetrical and gynecological problems. Magnesium helps prevent premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea (cramping pain during menses). It is important in the treatment of infertility, and alleviates premature contractions, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy. Intravenous magnesium is given in obstetrical wards for pregnancy-induced hypertension and to lessen the risk of cerebral palsy and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Magnesium should be a required supplement for pregnant women.
Osteoporosis. Use of calcium with vitamin D to enhance calcium absorption, without a balancing amount of magnesium, causes further magnesium deficiency which triggers a cascade of events leading to bone loss.
Raynaud’s syndrome. Magnesium helps relax the spastic blood vessels that cause pain and numbness of the fingers.
Tooth decay. Magnesium deficiency causes an unhealthy balance of phosphorous and calcium in saliva, which damages teeth.
[Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. The Magnesium Miracle. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007]

Correcting magnesium deficiency provides relief in these and other conditions too numerous to list in this article.

Standard serum (blood) tests are useless in screening for magnesium deficiency since less than 1% of our body’s total magnesium can be measured in our blood. Unfortunately, doctors rely upon this test even though magnesium must be measured at work inside the cells and tissues with very specific tests. For the average person, the easiest way to diagnose magnesium deficiency is simply by supplementing for at least a few months to see if symptoms are relieved.

Under ideal conditions we need approximately 300mg of magnesium to offset daily losses. If you are under mild to moderate stress – physical or psychological disease, physical injury, athletic exertion, or emotional stress – your requirements for magnesium increase. Foods rich in magnesium, with a relatively low sensitivity profile, include fermented legumes (i.e. beans) and organic green vegetables. Since an average good diet may supply around 250mg, from which only half is actually absorbed, researchers feel that most people would benefit from magnesium supplementation. Otherwise, body tissue must be broken down to supply this essential mineral.

To benefit from magnesium supplementation, take chelated magnesium (bound to organic amino acids) for maximum absorption: magnesium citrate, malate, orotate, taurate, or magnesium glycinate. Do not use magnesium oxide because it is basically a laxative. The recommended dose is 6-8mg/kg of body weight (3 to 4.5 mg/lb), although 200mg four times per day is a better dose. If this dose has a laxative effect, cut down by 200mg until this effect stops. Spread your magnesium doses throughout the day because there is only so much you can absorb at one time. As you remedy your deficiencies over time, you might need less supplementation – your stools will tell you.

Some forms of chelated magnesium are better than others for certain conditions. Magnesium taurate is best for heart conditions. Magnesium taurate, glycinate and orotate are best for those who tend to have loose stools since they have less laxative effects. Magnesium malate is the best form to treat the chronic fatigue, pain, and insomnia of fibromyalgia.

Magnesium can be taken with or without meals but it’s best to take it between meals as it requires stomach acid to be absorbed. Digestion after a full meal may make the stomach acid less readily available for mineral absorption. Magnesium is an alkaline mineral which may act as an antacid, neutralizing the stomach acid needed for digestion.

Magnesium chloride can be used to make magnesium oil which can be readily absorbed through the skin when sprayed or rubbed on the body. It increases magnesium bioavailability in the body and provides the ideal solution for those individuals who experience loose stools when they try to take enough oral magnesium to meet their needs. Some researchers have found that using magnesium oil at a concentration of 25% magnesium chloride restores a magnesium deficiency in a matter of weeks that would otherwise require months or a year to restore with oral supplementation. If you pump about 6 sprays of magnesium oil for each leg and arm, you are applying about 400mg of magnesium (a 25-35% magnesium chloride solution delivers between 13 and 18 mg per pump). Using a few sprays under your arms will also function as a highly effective deodorant. If any redness or stingy feelings result, use a more diluted magnesium oil.

Requirements for a very ill person are much higher than for a healthy person. In general, if you take a full body magnesium bath, two ounces of magnesium chloride could be used. Some people prefer a very concentrated magnesium chloride bath with as many as eight ounces of magnesium at a time. Foot baths use much less water, so two ounces will yield a very concentrated intake. Soak the body or just the feet in the warm solution for 20-30 minutes. It is best to do it daily during the first week, starting at lower concentrations and working towards higher levels. Then continue at 2-3 times a week for 6-8 weeks or longer.

Magnesium sulfate, also known as Epsom salts, is another excellent option even though it is rapidly excreted from the kidneys and more difficult to assimilate. The effects from Epsom salt baths do not last as long, so you will need more magnesium sulfate than magnesium chloride in a bath to get similar results.

For the average individual, high doses of magnesium have no side effects except loose stools. However magnesium therapy is contraindicated in individuals with kidney failure, myasthenia gravis, excessively and pathological slow heart rate, and mechanical bowel obstruction. In such cases, it should at the very least be given under the supervision of a health care provider.

People often find relief from their symptoms when they take magnesium, so they immediately tell friends and relatives. This word-of-mouth spread of information about this miraculous mineral is really making a difference in the epidemic of magnesium deficiency, and I hope that you will benefit as well.

Further reading:

Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. The Magnesium Miracle. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007

Mark Sircus, Ac., O.M.D. Transdermal Magnesium Therapy. Arizona: Phaelos Books, 2007.

25 Responses to “ Magnesium: The Spark of Life ”

  1. katesisco says:

    I am self treating possibly for myesthenia gravis; I refused the steroids, the thyroid surgery, all these being suggested without any diagnosis. I am taking an amino complete with nano magnesium and natural c. I recently added a NAC to the daily. I note the magnesium in a daily multiple vit\min is magnesium oxide of which the body can absorb only 2%. I use a nano spray under the tongue which does not produce any negative effects. Indeed, I had been so constipated that the only other form of elimination was diarrhea. Taking one amino complete daily with the supps above produced a regular stool for the first time in years. This has been my routine for almost a year. And I have dental carries that produces a continuous infection. My request for dental care is met with Xray priors even tho I have only the front teeth and the infection is obvious.

  2. mhikl says:

    Magnesium is very dear to my heart.

    I knew my mum was at death’s door when she called me one morning in 1972. I quickly went over to her apartment and finding her unconscious, phoned for the ambulance. She was diagnosed with a potassium deficiency and over the year re-entered hospital two or three more times for the same reason when I finally stumbled upon the answer from one of the numerous health books I had been purchasing from a second hand stores. (The doctors told her to eat bananas and potatoes for potassium. Shouldn’t the doctors have recognised a serious problem when this advice was followed yet the problem continued. One definition of insanity is repeating the same thing over and over expecting different results.)

    I learned that there were not two but four (recently I read about the fifth electrolyte, phosphorous) which include sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Magnesium the small paragraph said, is the great regulator of all electrolytes.

    I immediately got my mum the strongest magnesium tablets I could find. She used these tablets until her death twenty years later. (Her younger sister died in the same state of stress ten years earlier.) Mum was under observation in an apartment in the same hospital from twenty years ago being assessed for independent living. She was not, however, allowed to administer her own prescriptions nor take her vitamins or minerals. (Independent living assessment?) She entered hospital on a Thursday and Sunday morning, Mother’s Day, she went into distress and could not be revived.

    I know that I also need extra magnesium. When my hands are shaky or I get a sense of “shorting out” or disconnection along my inner arms, I know my magnesium is low. I test this by writing a few lines to check my handwriting. Then I take the magnesium with some warm water or coffee. After about fifteen minutes I try the handwriting again and always, it is much neater and more fluid and I feel more connected.

    Now I make a magnesium drink out of a combination of Milk of Magnesia (90ml) and a two litre bottle of carbonated water, both chilled. The mixture is then shaken for a minute and returned to the refrigerator. An hour or so later it has become clear and is shaken again. This time the bottle collapses and it becomes an ionised magnesium concoction to mix with water. About sixty ml is added to a litre of water and sipped throughout my day. The original mix lasts almost a month.

    I have a theory on magnesium storage. Vitamin C, I have read, is stored in the intestinal walls. Once you reach saturation, the rest is expelled as diarrhoea. I find that I cannot take near the Vitamin C when I am also taking my magnesium water. I wonder if excess magnesium is not also stored in the intestines and when vitamin C is present, less of either can be stored.

    It was the experience with my mum that set me upon the study of natural health starting with Adele Davis, though I had been interested in nature and natural medicine since a small boy helping a very old lady pick camomile flower buds for her husband’s tea.

    Last point. Walter Last is a retired German-Australian naturopath. His articles are very good. He also talks about the need for Boron which can still be purchased in Canada and the US as Borax. It is banned in the Europe and Australia. Used for its ionising action in the laundry, many people think it is a detergent but it is not. It is a mineral similar in appearance, taste and feel to calcium and important for strong bones and teeth. Soil depletion is a problem so foods are deficient in boron today. I and my dog use borax regularly. A dry finger dipped in the powder daily is more than enough to fill that reservoir. My wife and other relatives are wary of the mineral and most of my strange understanding in natural health.

    I would appreciate any corrections to my understanding on magnesium and boron. Your good work and the time to detail which you share are truly commendable, Dr Segura.

    Namaste and care,

  3. Hubert says:

    Thanks for the great article, I had been using magnesium chloride flakes for almost a month now to restore my depleted condition. It had been great improvement, most symptoms like tingling all over my body had disappear, I just able to start walk around without any tingling around my body, heart puplpitation are more stable now, I expect more improvment on coming weeks. I’m still waiting to see the specialist, as my family doctor said I have stress that lead to the fatigue and heart puplpitation but it’s the naturalpathy doctor told me to take magnesium for my heart beat issue, and from that I realize I actually have magnesium depleted in my body.

    The only thing I want to ask you is, is it normal that everytime I do the bath or foot bath, my blood pressure (systolic one) will drop. My typical number is around 110-117, once I do the magnesium, it will drop to the range 97-108. If I cut down the dose(at current stage), there will be time that my heart will start palpitation. For the last two day, I had try those ionic magnesium, I had taken 800mg the first day and 600mg yesterday, today I did not take it because my blood pressure(systolic) had been staying at 98-108. So I use the magnesium chloride flake and oral supplment for now , as I found the ionic one goes into my body too much too fast.

    In the meantime, while I will monitor the amount to use and what ways I can raise my blood pressure a bit higher while taking the magnesium?


    • Hubert says:

      Also, forgot to ask, in my case should I take calcium with the magnesium ?, for the last month when I start the bath, I did not take any calcium because I was so low in magnesium
      That I can not even walk far at home before my body will have crazy tingling, muscle shaking., but now my condition is improved enough that I can walk around no problem, basic everyday routine at home can do without problem now. So I just wonder if I should also start taking calcium with my magnesium ? What other supplment I should take along to help my magnesium absorbsion?

      Sorry for using the reply post on this as I am not sure how to edit my original post.

      Thx again

    • Hubert says:

      Hi Gabriela, thank you so much on the advices, I will look into those.
      Regarding raising the blood pressure with the salt intake, can I just put in 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon into my cooking for now? Or just mix in the water and drink it for now, while I check on the bone broth.

      And for Adrenal fatigue, I had only had lower blood pressure while I’m on magnesium, in my case I can have the possibility having this health issue. I just want to double check?
      Thank you for the information support. I’m reading those right now.


      • Yeah, you don’t necessarily have adrenal fatigue. Although using more salt and monitoring your blood pressure might be useful. If you are not dizzy nor have other symptoms, you can just drink the broth from time to time, that will help you to balance your minerals. You can also use the salt in your cooking or drink it when you have very low blood pressure. All the best!

  4. Hubert says:

    Hi, if I suspect mild overdose of magnesium because of those ionic magnesium, I found my blood pressure is drop about 104/70, upper 4 or lower 4, this is the 3rd day, it didn’t go back up much, as I feel not as easy to detect my heart beat, I don’t have dizzy or other problem, except when sleep, it harder to sleep as my heart rate can go up and I wake up.

    Can I drink lots of fluid try to flush it out?, I haven’t really try that yet, I had stop taking more magnesium for now. What other things I can eat to flush out those and bring up the blood pressure?


  5. Hubert says:

    Also, from Sunday to yesterday(Tuesday )I had diarrhea, once per day, today I didn’t have it yet, I do have solid bowel today. Also lots of gas out. I suspect it’s overdose of ionic magnesium. I started last Friday on 800mg and 600mg on Saturday, but I feel my chest is a bit more relax than usual, I couldn’t detect my heart beat as easily,it had happen before when I use the magnesium flakes for bath soak, but blood pressure will back to normal the next day but this time this the 4th day, it didn’t get any worse. And day time routine doesn’t effect me. so I had stopped on Saturday afternoon up to now(Wednesday).

    Just provide you this extra info.


    • Congratulations Hubert for getting a hold of your palpitations. Diarrhea is an indication that you had excess magnesium. What I would do is get a “milder” form of magnesium: magnesium taurate or magnesium glycinate and take those instead according to label instructions or instructions in this article. I think that is a more “progressive” way to do it. Best!

      • Hubert says:

        Hello Dr. Gabriela:, it’s Hubert , it had been close to 2 months now when I start the magnesium chloride bath. So far my heart palpitation is gone, symptoms like tingling on my body, muscle shaking had been greatly improve, as long as I had enough dosage(at current stage of recovering) and not doing too much physical work, I won’t feel tingling or muscle shaking or jumping in different random area.

        My question is usually how long it take to recover ( in general) to the point that I can feel just like a normal person that can start doing more active life style?
        Because right now I found that minor tingling and muscle jump, spasm can happen when the magnesium start to wear out, so I need to take magnesium again. Right now, I’m good condition for general walking around , doing light duty work at home but not yet able to start running or heavy exercise yet, as I can start feeling tingling, muscle spasm, fatigue on muscle after I try to push my body abit on heavier exercise.

        So am I on a right track? Does it usually takes few months to restore the magnesium ? Or there’s other problem that draining my magnesium away. I just need to guidance to walk along my recovering process. What u know is if I stuff enough magnesium per day, symptoms does able to disappear. The only thing is those symptoms still come back once my dosages wear out.

        Thank you

      • Hello Hubert, glad you are making progress. Unfortunately, magnesium is one of those minerals that is always good to replace, particularly if you have a “normal” diet. That is, magnesium deficiency is very frequent. I would read more about it in order to understand why it is so important and how our modern lifestyle is basically not conducive towards wellness. See for instance ‘Primal Body, Primal Mind’ by Gedgaudas and “The Magnesium Miracle” by Carolyn Dean. Take care!

  6. Sandy says:

    Hi Was wondering if someone ot yourself knows about any side affects or interaction with Magnesium Chloride oil and cipralex, and Clonazepam??

  7. Lenny Blue says:

    I’m sold on the benefits of Magnesium. I recently went cold turkey from my BP medicine, Lisinopril after ten years of use and developing terrible symptoms that I related to it.
    My BP is perfect without it after using for three weeks.

    • Great news! Thank you for sharing.

      • Lenny "Blue" says:

        Dr Segura.
        I first want to say you are a wonderful person sharing this wealth of knowledge with us. You must be a kind good hearted person and I appreciate you. I’ve finished reading Dr Carolyn Deans book ” The Magnesium Miracle”. I want to share with you and your readers my experience thus far.
        Ionic Magnesium liquid form worked better for me than taking Magnesium Oxide supplement pills. I developed a bad rash on my back from that so stopped using it.
        I take Ionic Magnesium twice a day. Once in the morning and then after dinner. I’ve never experienced diarrhea. My heart palpations from my Mitral Prolapse Valve have stopped.
        My pressure is under control without harsh meds.
        I take warm-hot baths ( 30-60 mins ) if BP gets elevated and it seems to bring it down to normal numbers.
        Most Doctors don’t know or understand about Magnesium deficiency or use. My current Primary doctor said most people are not deficient.
        I had RBC magnesium blood test and my numbers were 5.3 . It’s recommended to be 6.0-8.0 I think.
        I will continue to take Magnesium because it is safe ( for me ) and has very little side effects. I also spray. Magnesium oil on my feet at night for better absorption . My friends , family continue to laugh and doubt me but time will tell if this is my ” fountain of youth”.
        Lenny “Blue “

      • Oh Lenny “Blue”, that is great to hear! I’m very happy for you. Thank you for sharing!

  8. Kelly says:

    Hello Gabriella

    Do you know if it is possible for magnesium to accumulate in the system when using ace inhibitors such as fosinopril? I know I have read some information stating that they retain magnesium as well as potassium. I started using transdermal magnesium just before christmas and have been getting heart palps, slightly increased pulse ever since. I’ve been off mg for a few weeks and still have these symptoms (nothing has changed other than starting the mg).

    I am going to ask my doctor about changing my medication to something that doesn’t impact electrolytes such as a beta blocker.

    If I do have excess magnesium in my cells (blood levels have been tested and OK), will it detox on it’s own over time wihtout the complications of these BP medications? Any tips to speed this up?

    Many thanks


    • I don’t think the magnesium is the culprit here. ACE inhibitors retain potassium mainly through their interference on aldosterone metabolism. Typically sodium, chloride, potassium are involved. In general, any potassium retained doesn’t lead to palpitations. Any changes in magnesium should be secondary and for practical purposes, negligible in terms of clinical manifestations such as palpitations. But to make sure, you can ask for a blood test to check out potassium and magnesium levels.

      For palpitations the following research protocol is most useful:

      An anti-inflammatory and stabilizing diet. See “Wheat Belly” by cardiologist William Davies for more info. Avoid GMOs, coffee and excitotoxins like the plague: MSG and aspartame. Bone broth and supplementation with potassium and magnesium if there is no kidney failure. If you are using fosinopril, supplementing with potassium is a bad idea. Supplementing with Omega 3s, CoQ10, L carnitine. Make sure there is no iron overload (TIBC, iron, transferrin >35%, ferritin >100-200 is suggestive of iron overload). Breathing exercises, i.e. eebreathe.com


  9. G Clay says:

    I suffered from Magnesium deficiency over 40 years until about 4 years ago when I was researching why my myofacial trigger points kept recuring. It was a God send and cured many other problems as well. No wonder they call Magnesium “The Master Mineral”.

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